Types Of Studies In Psychology
Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event, or community. It uses information from a range of sources, such as from the person concerned and also from their family and friends.
types of studies in psychology
Many techniques may be used such as interviews, psychological tests, observations and experiments. Case studies are generally longitudinal: in other words, they follow the individual or group over an extended period of time.
Case studies are widely used in psychology and among the best-known ones carried out were by Sigmund Freud. He conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses.
Sometimes we want to see how people change over time, as in studies of human development andlifespan. Longitudinal research is a research design in which data-gathering is administered repeatedly over an extended period of time.
In cohort studies, the participants must share a common factor or characteristic such as age, demographic, or occupation. A cohort study is a type of longitudinal study in which researchers monitor and observe a chosen population over an extended period.
Kendra Cherry, MS, is the author of the "Everything Psychology Book (2nd Edition)" and has written thousands of articles on diverse psychology topics. Kendra holds a Master of Science degree in education from Boise State University with a primary research interest in educational psychology and a Bachelor of Science in psychology from Idaho State University with additional coursework in substance use and case management.
A causal relationship is when one variable causes a change in another variable. These types of relationships are investigated by experimental research in order to determine if changes in one variable actually result in changes in another variable.
You can cut reactivity by conducting longer studies. Think of reality TV shows. The participants start on their best behaviors. Then, they grow accustomed to the cameras. And their behavior becomes more natural.
Now for the last of the types of research methods in psychology. The survey research method. This research method can be qualitative research or quantitative research. And scientists of all types use it, not only psychologists.
The above five research methods provide a glance at different psychology research methods. In reality, they are more complicated. They contain more detail in size and scope than presented here. But our overview highlights how different and rigorous research can be.
A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources from which information is obtained, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection. Methods also vary by whether they collect qualitative data, quantitative data or both.
Qualitative psychological research findings are not arrived at by statistical or other quantitative procedures. Quantitative psychological research findings result from mathematical modeling and statistical estimation or statistical inference. The two types of research differ in the methods employed, rather than the topics they focus on.
Psychologists may have other roles, too. They may carry out studies to advise health authorities and other bodies on social and other strategies, assess children who find it difficult to learn in school, give workshops on how to prevent bullying, work with recruitment teams in companies, and much more.
Clinical psychology integrates science, theory, and practice in order to understand, predict and relieve problems with adjustment, disability, and discomfort. It promotes adaption, adjustment, and personal development.
Psychological assessment and psychotherapy are central to the practice of clinical psychology, but clinical psychologists are often also involved in research, training, forensic testimony, and other areas.
Cognitive psychology investigates internal mental processes, such as problem solving, memory, learning, and language. It looks at how people think, perceive, communicate, remember, and learn. It is closely related to neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.
Neuropsychology looks at the structure and function of the brain in relation to behaviors and psychological processes. A neuropsychology may be involved if a condition involves lesions in the brain, and assessments that involve recording electrical activity in the brain.
Social psychology uses scientific methods to understand how social influences impact human behavior. It seeks to explain how feelings, behavior, and thoughts are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other people.
In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt, Germany, founded psychology as an independent experimental field of study. He set up the first laboratory that carried out psychological research exclusively at Leipzig University. Wundt is known today as the father of psychology.
The debate between the functionalists and structuralists led to a rapid growth in interest in psychology in the United States and elsewhere, and the establishment of the first psychology laboratory in the U.S., at Johns Hopkins University.
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), in the U.S., a pschologist can become licensed to practice with a doctoral degree in the field of psychology from an accredited university. In addition, each state has requirements for licensure.
One of the major disadvantages of naturalistic observation is that people tend to behave differently when being observed. This drawback was highlighted by the Hawthorne studies which set out to determine whether workers were more productive in brighter light.
The key to lifting the survey from a marketing tool to psychology research method is the random sample. This is a subset of the entire population being studied, chosen at random, to represent the general population better.
Experimental psychology research methods start with a hypothesis that the researcher hopes to prove, attained by manipulating one independent variable while measuring the result on another dependent variable.
The study of psychology can be personally and professionally rewarding. Concentrations in this field offer diverse opportunities to learn about people and how they interact with others in the workplace, in relationships and when facing health, financial and other life challenges.
Biological psychologists also study "behavior-changing brain lesions, chemical responses in the brain and brain-related genetics," according to the American Psychological Association (APA). Biopsychology is also sometimes referred to as physiological psychology or psychobiology, according to the APA.
Cognitive psychology looks at the mental processes that relate to thinking, memory and language, and makes discoveries about these processes by observing behavior, according to the APA. Current research has focused on information processing theories developed in computer science and artificial intelligence, APA reports.
Most psychologists working in brain science and cognition work in academic settings where they teach, conduct research or both, according to the APA. Their expertise is invaluable in growth areas such as human-computer interaction, software development, organizational psychology and as consultants throughout the private sector. Many cognitive psychologists work directly with clients and patients in a wide variety of private practice and clinical settings; others serve in positions within government, private research centers and treatment facilities and even as expert witnesses for court cases.
Developmental psychology involves the research and application of scientific knowledge to areas such as education, childcare and policy, according to Dr. Jay Greiner, adjunct instructor of social sciences. "Developmental psychologists study how people grow and adapt (physically and psychologically) from conception to death, and conduct research to understand and support people to reach their full potential."
According to the APA, an important goal of forensic psychology is the description and measurement of capacities relevant to legal questions. As a result, they attempt to create relevant, accurate and credible conclusions that inform legal arguments but do not interrupt the process. Additionally, there is a special focus on clarifying the conflicts of psychology ethics and the demands of law.
According to The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, this branch of psychology is the scientific study of working and it has critical relevance to individuals, businesses and society. Industrial-organizational psychology applies research to issues facing individuals, teams and organizations, and examines employee well-being and attitude, employee-employer relationships and the entire breadth of workplace behavior.
According to the APA, industrial-organization psychologists are practitioners with expertise in the design, execution and interpretation of psychology research. Industrial-organization psychology then utilize their findings to address human and organizational problems in the context of organized work.
Research is typically focused on finding a particular answer or answers to a question or problem, logically enough called the research question. A research design is a formalized means of finding answers to a research question. Research designs create a framework for gathering and collecting information in a structured, orderly way. Five of the most common psychology research designs include descriptive, correlational, semi-experimental, experimental, review and meta-analytic designs. 041b061a72